Dinn Wahyudin, M. Syaom Barliana, Yulia Rahmawati, and Danny Meriawan Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (UPI)
The quality of a nation depends upon the quality of its citizens. The quality of their education depends more than upon any single factor, upon the quality of their teacher. In a global perspective, each country always undertakes efforts to revitalize teacher education as an inseparable part to the success of the national education development system it adopts. Teacher education is seen as one important barometer for ensuring the national education system of a nation (Wahyudin,2017). In this context, UNESCO (2012) asserts that the quality of teachers is the main factor affecting the quality of educational systems. Another more assertive statement was stated by Barber and Mourshed (2007) and Wahyudin (2016) which states that the quality of an educational system cannot exceed the quality of its teachers.
In teacher education, the mastery of theory, method, learning strategy that taught by lectures in class should be linked and integrated with how the prospective teachers learn in school with all social cultural background. Those unity will directly form the fact of learning environment intact – “Shaping the nature of the teaching and learning environment” (Loughran, 2010). Therefore, it is important for teaching learning process should be conditioned through real situations in the school and real- life setting. The implementation of education is not merely transfer knowledge, know-how and technology. Hammond and Hammond (2005) has stated that teacher education for XXI century must be directed to response the demands of this era. As it is reiterated by that teachers for the XXI century, teachers must provide themselves at least with knowledge of the learners, have profound pedagogical content knowledge and skills, have strong mastery of the subject matter to be taught, have sound knowledge of context of education, and have the ability to use ICT in the teaching and learning processes.
In Indonesia, as reported by Perryman (2017), there
was strong political impetus for TVET reform under the 20-year plan of the
previous government which has been carried through with a different, more
technological, emphasis by the new government, including an MoU to support
partnership working and improve school effectiveness. Now days, Indonesia is
undergoing rapid and successful transition to a knowledge- based economy and
seeks to transform the TVET system to offer practice based and demand driven
programmes aimed at improving employability and participation in lifelong
learning. The Ministry of National Education that administers formal TVET has
increased its investments and made TVET expansion a priority. The management of
Vocational schools have moved from districts to provincial control and
management to improve coherence and drive reform of vocational education
program. Public vocational schools operate with centralised curricula and
centrally managed teacher training with little flexibility to encourage work
based learning or soft skills development. Polytechnics and Universities are
also closely constrained. (Perryman, 2017).
In terms of vocational teacher system, it is widely acknowledged that the quality of teachers and trainers greatly influences with the effectiveness of technical and vocational education and training (TVET) institutes in generating qualified and skilled workers. One of the government policies is to improve the quality of vocational education as well as education and vocational skills training. To support the policy, the President of the Republic of Indonesia has issued the Presidential Instruction Number 9 of 2016 on the Revitalization of Vocational High School in order to improve the quality and competence of human resources of Indonesia. In fact, one of the determinants of the vocational school quality is the availability of qualified teachers who have got certified as professional teachers.
It is evident that a number of problems that arise in vocational education, such as the mismatch between education and industry, formulated and implemented policies were not based on the results of adequate research. In terms of providing qualified vocational teachers, revitalization of TVET system is compulsory and includes at least two things. First, improve the recruitment patterns of prospective teachers by recruiting only qualified student candidates of preservice teacher education institutions (TIEs) or other universities with relevant expertise programs. Second, revitalize vocational education in TIEs. The revitalization includes improving the quality of management, lecturers, curriculum development, laboratory facilities and infrastructure, quality of teaching and learning, industrial relations improvement, and the development of vocational education study.
The effectiveness of TVET system also strongly depends on the quality of educational interactions and relationships that occur between the teachers and students in class and laboratory and the quality of collaboration among university, vocational schools and industries. Changes in the world of work, founded upon rapid and widespread technological development, have significantly influenced the type of TVET programs that need to be offered. (Bunning, F. and Z.Q.Zhao, 2006). Furthermore, it has influenced the teaching and learning strategies employed by TVET teachers, rendering the nature of TVET unique from all other areas of teaching.
B. Preservice TVET
In Indonesia, most pre-service TVET teacher preparation programs are offered to those who will be teaching in general secondary schools, although in reality they will be placed as teachers in Vocational Secondary schools. During the four-year TVET program as undergraduate (S1) program, preservice TVET students have got subject matters, pedagogic experiences and practical teaching experience in vocational secondary schools, and program of practical insight in related industry.
In general, the preservice teacher education institution (TIEs) on TVE in Indonesia are expected to play two crucial roles in the national sustainable development era. The first role is to provide training opportunities and career advancement for increased school graduates from secondary schools to be as prospective teachers on Vocational secondary schools (SMK). The second role is to provide more skilled manpower that are needed in manufacturing industries as well as service industries. In order to have skilled graduate from TVET, the government has developed some efforts and program in revitalizing TVET teacher training faculties.
C. Professional Teacher Education (PPG) Program for TVE
In Indonesia, since the two last decades, some efforts
and programmes have developed by the Government of Republic of Indonesia cq.
The Ministry of Education and Culture in revitalizing TVET system. One of TVET
system program is developing preservice and in-
service teachers training through Professional Teacher Program (PTP) or
in Bahasa Indonesia is called Pendidikan
Profesi Guru (PPG). It is a two semester higher education program after
bachelor degree for prospective teacher to have teacher certificate as an
official licence to be
a professional teachers. The development of science and technology brings logical
consequences to the orientation of the development of teacher professionalism that is directed to develop competences. Article 10 paragraph (1) of Law Number 14 Year 2005 concerning Teachers and Lecturers mandates that professional teachers must have pedagogical competence, personal competence, social competence, and professional competence. The four competencies that should be possessed by these teachers are holistic and constitute a unity that characterizes professional teachers.
As stated in Law No 20/2003 on the National Education System, professional teacher education or PPG is higher education after the bachelor program which prepares participants to be a professional teacher. the PPG program is an educational program organized for graduates of undergraduate education (S1) in education subjects and undergraduate (S1) non- education subjects who have talent and interest to become professional teachers. The objective of the professional teacher education (PPG) program, as stated in Minister of Education and Culture Regulation Number 87 of 2013 is to produce prospective teachers who have competence in planning, implementing, and evaluating learning, following up on results assessment, mentoring, and training of students and conducting research, and able to develop professionalism in a sustainable manner.
In accordance with the regulation of Ministry of Education and Culture number 55 Year 2017 article 1 point 5 states that the Professional Teacher Education program or PPG is educational program after academic graduate program (S1) or applied graduate (D-4) to hold teacher certificate for teaching in Kindergarten formal education, primary education and secondary education. After attending the program prospective teachers will receive teachers’ certificate, and the graduate shall be promoted as professional teacher as childhood & kindergarten teachers, primary school classroom teachers, subject matter teachers in junior secondary school and subject matter teachers high secondary school as well as subject matter teachers in vocational secondary school (SMK).
The PPG Study Program is designed systematically and applied to meet quality principles ranging from selection, learning and assessment processes and competency tests. It is expected to produce professional future teachers in every unit and types of schools. Currently, the PPG prospective student selection policy is coordinated by the Ministry of Education and Culture (previously by the Ministry of Research and Technology) in collaboration with the organizing TEIs. The success of teacher professional education program that carried out by pointed universities or TIEs organizers requires the support of well-coordinated management system.
According to the regulation of Ministry of Education and Culture number 55 Year 2017 concerning Teacher Education Standard article 20 that professional teacher program or PPG consists of two parts:
- PPG Pre-service Program,
it has 36-40 credits and the program
is carried out in 2 Semesters;
- PPG in-service program, it has 24 credits, and the program is carried out in one semester.
In all the two types
of PPG programs, they contain
serial workshops (as subject matters) in developing subject-specific
pedagogy (SSP) learning tools such as: developing media, developing lesson
plan, developing program
for classroom action research (CAR)
and teaching practice at micro
teaching room. The next program, then, the implementation of Field Experience
Practices (PPL) as real teaching practice in schools. The proportion between
the SSP Workshop and Teaching Practice
in general is 60% compared
to 40 % from the overall
PPG learning load. An overview of the structure of the PPG curriculum is presented in Table 1.
Table 1 : Structural Program of PPG
|1.||Workshop for developing instructional program – (subject-specific pedagogy)||60%|
|2.||Field practice – school and industrial practicum||40 %|
It can be noted that in the area of PPG for vocational teachers, this provision has raised a lot of pros and cons. The pros and cons are based on the fact that vocational education is a type of education which is not only teaches knowledge and science but also psycho-motoric skills. Thus, it needs vocational teachers who are not only having good enough science and general teaching skill, but also they have capabilities and skills on how to deliver psychomotor skill on real life setting in industries.(Estriyanto, 2016). TVET-teachers should have capabilities and knowledge in a particular vocational field, and they should have command of the skills required for doing the typical jobs and tasks in this field. This experience and know- how can only be acquired by practical situations in companies or industries where professional standards of good performance have to be met. In addition, a TVET-teacher has to combine this practical “know-how” with theoretical knowledge when planning the proper steps for carrying out a task. Part of this is understanding “why” a vocational task will be carried out in this way and not in another. To “know why” is the result of theoretical studies and reflection based upon practical experience. (Gerds and Zhao, 2006).
The pro assume that teacher development can be carried out consecutively. It means that a teacher of mechanical engineering, as an example, can be developed from a pure bachelor degree of mechanical engineer by giving additional pedagogical knowledges and skills. On the other hand, the counter party rejects the argument because they assume that a bachelor degree in mechanical engineering don’t have enough competence aspects needed to be a vocational teacher. (Estriyanto, 2016).
As mentioned on Regulation from Indonesian Ministry of Indonesian National Education no 16year 2017 concerning of standard of academic qualification and teacher Competencies. The teachers at SMK, must have a minimum educational diploma qualification of four (D-IV) or undergraduate (S1) study programs that are appropriate for the subjects taught / taught, and are obtained from accredited study programs. In fact, it is addressed only for normative and adaptive teachers at SMK, while the productive teachers need some extra competencies. There are three types of subject matter teacher in Vocational Secondary schools. First, normative teachers who teach subjects such as Indonesian, English, and Counselling Guidance. Second, adaptive teacher is a teacher who teaches basic abilities namely about mathematics, chemistry, and biology. Third, productive teachers are teachers who teach in certain fields for building vocational skills such as buildings, electricity, machinery, namely specificity fields, for example in the fields of engineering, agriculture, and science
Based on the information above, it is needed to clear
up what is missing from the pre- service teacher education and certification on
the program of PPG for vocational secondary schools. Adaptive and normative
teachers are trained by non-vocational educational study. They are trained by
PPG in accordance with the subjects they are mastered. While productive
teachers are trained by attending PPG program on TVET. In terms of program,
adaptive and normative teachers are trained under the flow chart and mechanism
as the following figure.
Figure 1: Flow of chart of PPG for Adaptive and Normative Teachers on TVET
On the other hand, productive teachers that responsible to teach in certain fields for building vocational skills, on PPG program of TVET, prospective teachers on TVE are necessary to have both field teaching practice in vocational secondary school or SMK, and they also have period of training in industries and factories. The flowchart and mechanism of professional teacher education (PPG) program can be seen on the following figure.
Figure 2: Flow of chart of PPG for Productive Teachers on TVET
Currently, Centre of Excellency on TVET in Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia is under way to establish. As a centre of excellency on TVET in Indonesia, some leading programs are developed under the COE of TVET. Some main programs are as the following.
- Revitalizing Professional Teacher Education Program
- Applied Approaches (AA) and PEKERTI Program for Vocational Lecturer in Universities or Poly-techniques;
- Various short training and workshops for existing VHS Teachers. In terms of program, it can be seen on the following road map.
Figure 3 : The Road map of Profesional Teacher Education on TVET
In developing Centre of Excellency on TVET in Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (CoE UPI TVET), collaboration and synergy among related components among sub units in internal UPI or coordination among external organization is very necessary. Those collaboration will lead the Center on TVET in UPI to be a leading and outstanding TVET organization that will contribute significant benefit for the generating development of human resource in vocational areas and industries. The synergy of CoE TVETs components can be figured out on the following figure.
Figure 4: The synergy of CoE TVETs Components
D. Final Note
- Teacher education is seen as one important barometer
for ensuring the national education system of a nation. In this context, that
the quality of teachers is the main factor affecting the quality of educational
systems. In addition, the quality of an educational system cannot exceed the
quality of its teachers.
- There was strong political impetus for TVET reform under the 20-year plan of the previous government which has been carried through with a different, more
technological, emphasis by the new government, including support partnership working and improve school effectiveness.
- The preservice teacher
education institution (TIEs)
on TVE in Indonesia are expected
to play two crucial roles in the national sustainable development era. The
first role is to provide training opportunities and career advancement for
increased school graduates to be as prospective teachers on Vocational
secondary schools (SMK). The second
role is to provide more skilled manpower that are needed in manufacturing
industries as well as service industries.
- Currently, the establishing of Centre of Excellency on TVET in UPI. Some main programs are as Revitalizing Professional Teacher Education Program on TVE; Establishing Applied Approaches (AA) and PEKERTI Program for Vocational Lecturer in Universities or Poly-techniques; Developing various short training and workshops for existing VHS Teachers. The others are collaborating with other sub unit in developing Professional Competence Certification (Sertifikasi Kompetensi Keahlian – LSP) and developing more collaboration in the context of Teaching Industry.
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